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Full text of "The manufacture and properties of iron and steel"

RUSSIA.
569
Ekaterinoslav. The deposit varies greatly in composition and character, the richest ore being pulverulent and giving trouble in the blast furnace on account of this fine condition. Most of the beds are near the surface and are mined open-cut. Head gives the following as representative:
Dried at 212 F.	Fe.	P.	SiOa	Combined water.
Southern teds ..............	58.4	.095	82	6 45
Northern beds ..............	67.8	.032	47	3 20
				
The amount in sight is limited and most of the good deposits are owned by companies that smelt their own. output and sell no ore. The cost of a ton of Krivoi Hog ore, including 16 cents royalty, is given by Head as $1.28. The steel works are scattered along the railway from the ore mines to the coal field, a distance of 260. miles, but the freight rate for the long haul is about 0.64 cents per ton-mile, and the average freight on ore for the works in the coal basin will be about $1.90, giving a total cost of $3.18 per ton of ore, delivered at the coal district.
Large deposits of ore have also been opened at Kertsch, about 300 miles to the south across the Sea of Azov, the bed being near the surface and worked with steam shovels. The layer is 30 feet thick, but the upper and lower portions are poor, and only the middle stratum, comprising two-thirds of the whole, is used. Feumark states that the ore runs from 40 to 46 per cent, in iron, and that the cost of pig-iron made from it is from $11 to $12.50 per ton. On the other hand, Head says that the "Kertsch deposits are not important," and in the discussion of his paper it was stated that this ore contained only from 20 to 22 per cent, of iron.
In 1899 the production of ore in South Russia was as follows:
	Tons.
	2,650.000
Local Donetz .................................	180,000
Kertsch ..................... ..................	190,000
Total ......... , ........................	3,020,000
	
South Eussia in 1887 produced only 161,000 tons of iron ore, but in 1897 the output had risen to 1,898,000 tons, and in 1899 to